Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America

The Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America, was first published in 1820, in both Latin and English. The Pharmacopoeia listed chemicals, metals, plants, and other ingredients for medicinal use. It provided recipes for mixing medicines and became the national standard in pharmaceuticals. The Pharmacopoeia underwent many revisions throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Today, the United States Pharmacopeia and the National Formulary contain standards for strength, purity, packaging, and labeling of medicines in the United States.


The plow was the major farm implement of the nineteenth century. A strong plow was needed to break up the soil to prepare for planting. This plow has an iron share and moldboard. The share is the sharp edge that cuts the soil, and the moldboard is the curved, metal part of the plow that turns over the soil. The beam and handles are made of wood. This is just one of many different styles of plows.